Applies to: Adobe After Effects About animation, keyframes, and expressions Animation is change over time. You animate a layer or an effect on a layer by making one or more of its properties change over time. Any property with a stopwatch button to the left of its name in the Timeline panel or Effect Controls panel can be animated. Stopwatch icons A. Inactive stopwatch You animate layer properties using keyframes, expressions, or both.
Many animation presets include keyframes and expressions so that you can simply apply the animation preset to the layer to achieve a complex animated result. You work with keyframes and expressions in After Effects in one of two modes: Layer bar mode is the default, which shows layers as duration bars, with keyframes and expressions aligned vertically with their properties in the Timeline panel.
Graph Editor mode does not show layer bars, and shows keyframes and expression results in value graphs or speed graphs. See The Graph Editor. Keyframes Keyframes are used to set parameters for motion, effects, audio, and many other properties, usually changing them over time. A keyframe marks the point in time where you specify a value for a layer property, such as spatial position, opacity, or audio volume.
Values between keyframes are interpolated. When you use keyframes to create a change over time, you typically use at least two keyframes—one for the state at the beginning of the change, and one for the new state at the end of the change. See Set or add keyframes. When the stopwatch is active for a specific property, After Effects automatically sets or changes a keyframe for the property at the current time whenever you change the property value. When the stopwatch is inactive for a property, the property has no keyframes.
If you change the value for a layer property while the stopwatch is inactive, that value remains the same for the duration of the layer. See Auto-keyframe mode. If you deactivate the stopwatch, all keyframes for that layer property are deleted, and the constant value for the property becomes the value at the current time.
Change the keyframe icons in layer bar mode to numbers by choosing Use Keyframe Indices in the Timeline panel menu. Keyframes as icons compared to keyframes as numbers Note: When a layer property that contains keyframes is collapsed, gray dots summary keyframe indicators for the property group show that there are keyframes contained within it.
In layer bar mode, on the other hand, the time graph represents only the horizontal time element, without showing a graphical, vertical representation of changing values.
For temporal properties, such as Opacity, the Graph Editor defaults to the value graph. For spatial properties, such as Position, the Graph Editor defaults to the speed graph. For information on viewing and editing keyframe values, see View or edit a keyframe value. In the Graph Editor, each property is represented by its own curve. You can view and work on one property at a time, or you can view multiple properties simultaneously. When you drag a keyframe in the Graph editor with the Snap button selected, the keyframe snaps to keyframe values, keyframe times, the current time, In and Out points, markers, the beginning and end of the work area, and the beginning and end of the composition.
Keyframes in Graph Editor mode may have direction handles attached to one or both sides. Direction handles are used to control Bezier interpolation. You can use the Separate Dimensions button at the bottom of the Graph Editor to separate the components of a Position property into individual properties—X Position, Y Position, and for 3D layers Z Position—so that you can modify or animate each independently. See Separate dimensions of Position to animate components individually.
Keyframes in the Graph Editor with direction handles Online resources about the Graph Editor Antony Bolante provides information, tips, illustrations about using the Graph Editor in an article on the Peachpit Press website.
Specify which properties are shown in the Graph Editor Click the Show Properties button at the bottom of the Graph Editor, and select from the following options: This switch is next to the stopwatch, to the left of the property name, when the stopwatch is active—that is, when the property has keyframes or expressions.
Auto-Select Graph Type Automatically selects the appropriate graph type for a property: Edit Value Graph Displays the value graph for all properties.
Edit Speed Graph Displays the speed graph for all properties. Show Reference Graph Displays the unselected graph type in the background for viewing only. The gray numbers to the right of the Graph Editor indicate the values for the reference graph.
Show Audio Waveforms Displays the audio waveform for any layer that has at least one property in the Graph Editor. In and Out points appear as curly braces.
Show Layer Markers Displays layer markers in the Graph Editor, if they exist, for any layer that has at least one property in the Graph Editor. Layer markers appear as small triangles. Show Graph Tool Tips Toggles the graph tool tips on and off. Show Expression Editor Shows or hides the expression editor field.
Allow Keyframes Between Frames Allows placement of keyframes between frames for fine-tuning animation. To activate the Hand tool momentarily when using another tool, press and hold the spacebar or the middle mouse button. To pan vertically, roll the mouse scroll wheel. To pan horizontally, press the Shift key as you roll the mouse scroll wheel. To zoom in, click with the Zoom tool. You cannot pan or zoom vertically when Auto Zoom Height is selected. The horizontal zoom must still be adjusted manually.
Fit Selection Adjusts the value vertical and time horizontal scale of the graph to fit the selected keyframes in the Graph Editor. Fit All Adjusts the value vertical and time horizontal scale of the graph to fit all of the graphs in the Graph Editor. More like this.
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Do you remember the first time you opened it up? Much like anything else, it takes time to get good at it. Even with what you know now, you still realize there is a lot left to learn. The Internet provides such a valuable resource in learning the program.
Here is a list of the best resources to learn Photoshop! More than ever, there is an immense list of avenues to explore in order to get up to speed.
Another issue is that there are too many choices. Since anyone can publish tutorials, the sources may provide bad information that isn't necessarily correct. Here are some sources that you should definitely consider. These are geared toward beginners or people who are looking to just learn more about Photoshop! Lynda - http: It isn't free, however, it provides such amazing content that I do believe that it is well worth the price. Not only that, the instructors are world class and easy to follow.
They are even categorized by skill level. You can fine tune your education by going straight to the basics or exploring specific tools or techniques. If you have a favorite author, you can look through all their videos. I personally recommend Chris Orwig's videos. He teaches at Brooks Institute. It is a testament to the level of talent teaching at Lynda. Another great part about Lynda is that there are plenty of topics other than Photoshop! Check out all the subjects available through their library.
Kelby One - http: I'd recommend browsing through the subjects and categories to see which you may prefer. It mostly comes down to personal preference and what you are specifically looking to learn. I do like the transparent nature of both of these sites.
They offer you to see exactly what you will be learning before paying for the membership. Phlearn - http: What I enjoy about the site is the unique tutorials you find.
There are a lot of tutorials that go over different special effects. In the process, you learn a lot about the program and tools that you would never really venture out to learn on your own. It allows you to incorporate them into your own workflow.
It is how I personally learned much of what I know, by following random tutorials on the web and discovering tips that I placed into my digital toolbox of techniques. You'll be surprised when they will come in handy!
Phlearn also has a section of great free episodes that is constantly being updated as well. Aaron's personality is really a positive of Phlearn, making it enjoyable to watch. Creative Live - http: Who they bring on constantly changes, so keep an eye on free broadcasts that happen live through the week. You can explore their previously aired shows by checking out their catalog. If you look down the left column, you will see all the categories, aside from the software column, that can be very useful to practically anyone in our field.
If you want to check out who's coming up in the future, you can look through their calendar. I really enjoy Creative Live because it gives people a chance to learn for free. Each show has a rebroadcast that happens in the evening for people who miss it during the day. Every year, they also have Photoshop Week that is a wealth of information in one week. You can even purchase the entire collection to watch at your leisure. Free Photoshop Tutorial Sites Before these sites were available, we used a lot of other tutorial sites that were quite basic but contained all the information we wanted to know in order to learn the program.
If you know exactly what you want to learn, you can easily type in the tool and get a grasp on it right away. Also don't forget, here at Fstoppers, we post a ton of great videos that we find across the web! Check out our post production category for pages of free content relating to Photoshop and post production. Youtube is a double edged sword. You can find a lot of great and terrible content. I would recommend knowing what you want to look up specifically before going in. Also, take it with a grain of salt as well.
One channel I personally recommend for some quality and specific videos are by Michael Woloszynowicz. In Person Training Sites like Ledet allow you to sign up for classes that come to your city. They get you up to speed in a matter of days. Although it is a pricier option, it's very effective. Consider the option of signing up at your local college that offer courses relating to Photoshop.
A hands on approach can be very effective. I believe it's a cost effective option as well. One of my favorite authors is Katrin Eismann , who has a whole collection of great books! If you're looking for books regarding adjustment layers and blending modes, I'd recommend Scott Valentine 's books.
If you're looking for retouching in specific, check out this book by industry leading expert, Carrie Beene. Photoshop User TV - http: What I like is that it's easy to sort through the content to see what you want to watch before looking at each episode. They have been on for quite a while and it is a great online show for people looking to learn a variation of techniques.
DVDs If you're looking for education regarding retouching, there is no better place than checking out these videos at Digital Photoshop Retouching. They contain great content by many familiar names in the industry such as Natalia Taffarel, Krunoslav Stifter, and Julia Kuzmenko who also owns Retouching Academy and writes here on Fstoppers.
You Suck At Photoshop - http: This site gives you a comedic way to learn Photoshop. Actually, take that with a grain of salt. Although the amount of education is trivial, I wanted to include this for the intent of entertainment. They are worth watching if you use Photoshop in any way! If you have any more resources that you'd like to recommend, be sure and post them in the comments below.
I'll be going over my workflow and techniques that I use on a regular basis. Check out the details here: Come out and spend some time with us, you need that break! Check out the promo video on what you can expect at this year's workshop!